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Bali - Det er vigtigt at analysere og forstå baggrunden for aktioner!
Terrorism's Toxic Strains
Sidney Jones, 5. oktober 2005
fra The Age
Det er vigtigt at forstå baggrunden for at unge indonesere vælger selvmordsaktioner som middel eller politisk strategi. På den måde kan vi bedre forstå hvorfor bombeaktioner nu atter rammer paradisøen Bali, på trods af myndighedernes omfattende sikkerhedsmæssige indsats. Samtidig er der yderst sandsynligt at de koordinerende bagmænd kommer udefra.
After last week's Bali bombing, one question repeatedly arises: What turns young Indonesians into suicide bombers? If we look at the five men who have chosen to become "martyrs" thus far, we know the answer is not poverty and desperation, and it's not necessarily affiliation with Jemaah Islamiah - in fact, most of the suicide bombers so far haven't been JI.
They have come from West Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi, from very different socioeconomic backgrounds. Only two were under the direct tutelage of the two fugitive Malaysians, Azahari Husin and Noordin Mohamad Top, who are at the top of everyone's list of suspects in the latest blast, and only one was a graduate of a problematic school.
They almost certainly became suicide bombers for different reasons, meaning we have to break the problem down before we can begin to solve it. All would have come under the influence of an ideology called salafi jihadism that adds a political overlay to a puritanical vision of Islam by calling for war against the US and its allies. The aim is to avenge Muslim deaths in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, including by targeting Western civilians. But all five men would have interpreted the ideology through local lenses.
The five bombers are as follows:
Asmar Latin Sani was the one person who, with a long indoctrination in school, followed by close association with Noordin, may have been motivated solely by the idea of making the ultimate sacrifice to strike out at the enemies of Islam. Heri Golun's suicide note has never been made public, but he was from a Darul Islam family in a Darul Islam stronghold and probably shared some of Iqbal's desire to follow in the footsteps of Kartosoewirjo. Once selected as the bomber for the embassy bombing, however, he was given intensive religious instruction for about two months, and for the last few weeks was supervised by Noordin and Azahari.
The five men thus represent three pools of recruits: those inspired by a living legacy of rebellion (West Java), those with grievances from recent communal conflicts (Poso), and those indoctrinated in the tiny handful of JI schools. None of these potential recruits would act on his own, however: they have to be plucked from the pool by a more senior jihadist figure respected for his religious knowledge.
To address the problem, one can try to influence the recruits or the mentors or both. The only people the mentors are going to listen to are men with unquestioned salafi jihadist credentials and religious knowledge equal to their own. Exhortations from "moderate" Muslims will fall on deaf ears, and you will never get these men to take part in interfaith dialogues. One priority for the Indonesian Government should be how to persuade jihadists who are opposed to indiscriminate attacks on civilians - and there are many - to reach out to others, including in the JI schools. It may be that this will happen on its own, but if there is any way to facilitate the process, including enlisting repentant prisoners, it would be desirable.
In the Poso area where there are specific local grievances - unresolved issues of justice, displaced people, land seizures - assistance programs aimed at involving young mujahideen might help. West Java is more difficult, because it's not just the Darul Islam legacy, it's the fusion with salafi jihadism that makes such a lethal mixture.
Suicide bombing is now clearly an established practice in Indonesia, but we don't have to throw up our hands in despair and wait for the next attack. If we do more to understand the problem, we might be able to tackle it.